Hari Pahlawan: Perjuangan “Menegakkan” Diri Oleh: Eneng Elis Aisah

hatta

Pada tanggal 10 november ini, mari kita mengingat pahlawan tapi bukan dari sudut pandang perang. Namun dari sudut pandang seorang manusia biasa yang berjuang “menegakkan” dirinya. Moh. Hatta adalah seorang pejuang. Beliau sangat dikenal sebagai proklamator. Namun sebenarnya yang menjadikan seorang Muhammad Hatta pahlawan adalah perjuangannya melawan kesepian, kesendirian, kehampaan, keterasingan, kecintaan, dan ketidakmapanan tatanan yang ada dalam diri dan sekitarnya.
Begitu juga Syahrir, dengan segala kontroversinya dalam sejarah, beliau adalah jiwa kesepian yang berjuang dalam keterasingannya. Mereka berdua pejuang sejati yang mampu menegakkan dirinya dengan kebanggan, harga diri dan kehormatan sampai akhir hidup walau dalam keterasingan. Karena merekalah, jiwa-jiwa tergetarkan.
Sejarah mencatat, seorang pejuang yang sibuk dengan gaduh, gelimang harta dan jabatan adalah seorang pahlawan yang selalu berakhir tragis. Bukan karena mereka tidak pernah di kenang, namun hampa getaran menyentuh sukma. Sebenarnya mereka juga orang-orang terasing, namun mereka telah kalah dengan keterasingan dan memilih untuk sibuk dengan gelimang harta dan jabatan yang selalu membuat lupa. Itulah dua jalan hidup yang begitu samar namun tegas bedanya.
Bukan mereka saja yang menjadi pahlawan, kita, manusia biasa, yang tidak ada dalam catatan sejarah pun adalah pahlawan. Kita sehari-hari berjuang menempuh dua jalan itu dalam kesamaran. Berjuang menegaskan keabu-abuan walaupun sering kali terseok dan jatuh. Namun dengan sempoyongan kita berusaha bangun dan tegak kembali. Peluh dan air mata menghiasi perjalanan perjuangan kita setiap detiknya. Meski demikian senyum simpul terkadang terbentuk, tersipu akan laku yang telah kita perjuangkan.
Sebagai seorang pendidik, tidak dapat dipungkiri kita berjuang. Berjuang untuk kehidupan kita, juga berjuang untuk kehidupan peserta didik kita. Kita ingin kehidupan keluarga kita layak. Kita pun ingin kehidupan peserta didik kita lebih baik. Namun terkadang keduanya begitu menyamarkan perjuangan kita menjadi seorang pahlawan.
Terkadang kita begitu pamrih, permisif dan obsesif. Iming-iming gaji dan tunjangan membutakan keihklasan. Kesuksesan peserta didik dalam menempuh Ujian Nasional menyamarkan perjuangan dan menyuburkan obsesi akan pangkat dan keterkenalan. Kita sangat takut semua itu di rengut. Semua usaha kita lakukan untuk mempertahankannya. Namun sejarah kembali membuktikan bahwa semua perjuangan mempertahankan gelimang harta dan pangkat selalu berakhir tragis.
Menjaga getaran-getaran jiwa kepahlawanan adalah salah satu solusi agar kita berhasil dalam perjuangan menegakkan diri ini. Selalu me-update jiwa dan menyiramnya dengan berbagai curahan ilmu dan lakon sejarah para pendahulu. Membuka pikiran dan memperkuat mental dengan mempelajari bagaimana orang-orang hebat bertindak dan berjuang. Hanya dengan menjadikan “membaca” sebagai detak jantung yang mengiringi helaan nafas lah yang mampu mendetakkan kembali jiwa kepahlawanan.
Kita juga perlu mengakrabi keterasingan. Malahan bagi seorang pendidik, keterasingan dan rasa sepi itu patut dijadikan teman. Dalam keadaan demikian, nalar dan asa bersinergi mencari bentuk akan identitas diri. Terasing dan sepi adalah suasana kebatinan yang dapat membangkitkan refleksi.
Siapa kita? Apa yang telah kita perbuat? Untuk apa selama ini kita berbuat? Apa hasilnya? Bergunakah atau hanya kesia-siaan? Bagaimana agar tidak sia-sia? Bagaimana agar tidak gagal? Bagaimana agar kita sukses? Juga bagaiman agar orang lain sukses? Bagimana pendapat orang? Mengapa mereka begitu, saya begini? Dan segudang pertanyaan lain yang selalu melayang hampa ketika menjadi topik diskusi dengan rekan sejawat.
Karenya hanya dengan refleksi dalam keterasingan dan sepi itulah kita menemukan kesejatian bahwa hanya Yang Maha lah yang paling selalu setia menemani, tidak ada yang lain. Ketika refleksi telah mencapai kesadaran tersebut, pribadi ikhlas akan terbentuk, menggelinding membesar laksana bola salju. Tidak ada lagi khawatir, cemas dan waswas karena ada yang selalu setia menemani tanpa permisi. Sehingga dengan ditemani Sang Maha, strategi dan langkah hebat selalu tercipta.
Diatas itu semua, kita juga harus siap tergerak dan berani bergerak. Seorang pahlawan sejati tidak pernah membiarkan jiwanya tertutup rapat. Mereka mempersilahkan getaran-getaran kepahlawanan mengusik jiwa, raga, batin dan nalarnya. Bahkan mereka membiarkan hatinya risau atas ketidakteraturan dan ketimpangan. Kegundahan hati seorang pahlawan sejati bukan karena harta, namun karena keinginan untuk segera bertindak.
Bergerak adalah penawar kegelisahan seorang pahlawan sejati. Bangkit dari diam dengan menggerakan tangan dan kaki, dengan berbicara atau hanya sekedar berdiri. Memulai langkah kecil. Mencoba, mencoba dan tidak henti mencoba. Dengan bergerak kita memohon berkah. Dengan bergerak kita memahami bahwa seorang pahlawan tidak pernah berhenti bergerak. Bergerak berarti berjuang. Berjuang menegakkan diri, menegakkan prinsif, menegakkan kehormatan di tengah hasutan glamoritas dunia yang begitu menggoda. Selamat Hari Pahlawan!

Kerukunan Nasional dalam Bingkai Agama

kerukunan_n

Pada tanggal 3 januari 2014 santer di sebut akan dijadikan hari kerukunan Nasional (HKN). Big event tersebut adalah atas inisiasi Kementerian Agama dalam menyembut Hari Amal Baktinya yang ke 68. Dalam wawancara dengan sebuah televisi swasta, Menteri Agama menegaskan pentingnya harmonis dalam keberagaman. Semboyan ini mutlak diperlukan karena Negara kita adalah Negara yang multi suku, ras, agama dan budaya yang bersatu dalam satu negara, Indonesia. Hidup dalam kebinekaan inilah menjadi sumber kekayaan sekaligus potensi konflik terbesar negara kita.

Permasalahannya sekarang adalah apakah cukup hanya dengan mencanangkan tanggal 3 Januari sebagai Hari Kerukunan Nasional? Apakah cukup dengan acara gerak jalan Kerukunan Nasional yang dilakukan pada tanggal 5 Januari ini? Apakah cukup menciptakan dan menjaga kerukunan dengan hanya membentuk Forum Kerukunan Umat Beragama yang biasanya hanya berfungsi di level pusat saja?

Saran Dirjen Bimas Hindu dan Katolik, IBG Yudha Triguna dan Semara Duran Antonius perlu ditindaklanjuti. IBG Yuda Triguna menyarankan bahwa untuk menciptakan dan mempertahankan kerukunan, kita perlu meningkatkan frekuensi interaksi. Sedangkan Semara Duran Antonius menyarankan Kerukunan Nasional terintegrasi dalam kurikulum pendidikan nasional.

Memang tidak dapat dipungkiri, hanya dengan interaksi sebuah pemahaman, pengertian, pengetahuan, keyakinan dan keharmonisan terbentuk dengan baik. Interaksi bisa dalam bentuk interaksi langsung antara orang perorang atau juga interaksi tidak langsung, yakni dengan proses pembelajaran. M. Fatulah Gulen seperti yang dikutip oleh Richard Penaskovic, seorang Profesor Studi Agama di Universitas Auburn, Alabama AS ketika menanggapi tentang teori Clash of Civilization-nya Huttington mengemukakan bahwa hanya dengan pengetahuan dan pendidikan yang baik, Clash of civilation dapat dihindari.

Pemahaman Gulen inilah yang nampak mendominasi dibukanya beberapa Studi Islam di beberapa Universitas di Australia, seperti Australian Catholic, Melbourne, La Trobe dan Monash. Dan Studi Islam ini mendapat respon baik dari mahasiswa. Prof. Greg Barton dari Monash menjelaskan bahwa kebanyakan mahasiswa yang mengambil Studi Islam ini ingin lebih memahami Islam secara mendalam. Mereka meyakini bahwa Islam secara intrinsik penting dan menarik. Oleh karena itu mereka menyadari bahwa untuk menghindari misinterpretasi tentang Islam, mereka harus mempelajarinya secara komprehensif.

Dalam konteks Negara Indonesia, peran Islam sebagai agama mayoritas sangat signifikan dalam membanguan interaksi interreligi yang rukun dan harmonis. Memberikan pemahaman akan pentingnya berdialog dengan rendah hati dan terbuka terhadap keyakinan orang lain kepada umat mutlak dilakukan oleh para penyuluh agama, guru, ustad dan tokoh masyarakat pelosok kampung.

Perasaaan tidak percaya diri, takut, arogan, mendominasi, melebih-lebihkan perbedaan juga mengabaikan eksistensi kepercayaan satu dengan yang lainya mesti dihilangkan. Saling mendengarkan pengalaman spiritual seyogyanya dibangun meskipun tidak selalu harus setuju terhadap apa yang didengarkan.

Menghindari debat yang antagonis dan meremehkan, membangun kerukunan berdasarkan nilai-nilai spiritual serta komitmen terhadap masalah-masalah kemasyarakatan mutlak diciptakan. Paus John Paulus II mengungkapkan bahwa kerukunan spiritual berimplikasi terhadap kemampuan melihat sisi positif orang lain, menerima perbedaan keyakinan mereka dan menghargainya sebagai sebagai anugrah Tuhan. Malahan Prof. Dr. Ismail Albayrak, pimpinan studi Islam di ACU mengungkapkan bahwa interkasi interreligi dapat meningkatkan keimanan seseorang terhadap agamanya dan memperkokoh rasa kebersamaan. Sehingga dominasi kebenaran akan agama satu diatas agama yang lain, yang selama ini menjadi sumber konflik, dapat dihindari.

Selanjutnya, tidak sedikit Kerukunan Nasional terancam oleh perbedaan penafsiran dan pemahaman dalam satu agama tertentu. Malahan gejala inilah yang nampak sangat mendominasi. Dan tidak dapat dipungkiri hal ini mengancam keharmonikasn kehidupan berbangsa dan bernegara di Indonesia. Bahkan hal tersebut cenderung menjadi penyulut ketidakharmonisan agama satu dengan yang lainya.

Untuk meminimalisir hal tersebut, interaksi dan dialog intrareligi mesti dibentuk dengan baik. Penanganan yang refresif terhadap golongan yang berbeda pemahaman dan penafsiran hanya akan membuat jurang perbedaan dan kebencian yang semakin dalam. Begitupun dengan pembinaan yang dilakukan oleh golongan besar hanya akan memperlihatkan dominasi yang berlebih terhadap golongan kecil.

Maka tidak ada jalan lain, semuanya harus berdiri sama tinggi dan duduk sama rendah, saling mendengarkan dengan seksama dan rasa hormat terhadap apa yang menjadi kepercayaan dan keyakinan masing-masing. Selain itu hak berbicara dengan percaya diri untuk mengungkapkan tafsiran dan keyakinannya tanpa rasa arogan dan merasa paling benar perlu ditumbuhkan. Kiranya pernyataan para Imam Mujatahid dalam kitab Usul al-Fiqih karya Abu Zahrah yang menyatakan bahwa “pendapat kami benar, mengandung kemungkinan salah dan pendapat selain kami salah, mengandung kemungkinan benar” patut dijadikan landasan dalam berinterkasi intrareligi yang rukun dan harmonis. Semoga kedepan Negara kita semakin kaya karena semua penduduknya memiliki kekayaan hati.

A Critical Comparison of the 1994 and the 2006 English Language Teaching Curricula (A Critical Discourse Analysis)

A Critical Comparison of the 1994 and the 2006 English Language Teaching Curricula

(A Critical Discourse Analysis)

By: E. Elis Aisah

1.     Abstract

This research reports the comparison of the 1994 and the 2006 ELT curriculum, particularly based on MTs Negeri Ciranjang’s perception. This study employs a qualitative case study, in MTs Negeri Ciranjang as microscopic setting.  Data are obtained through document and textbook analysis, and interview. The data from document, particularly from both curricula are analyzed with concept of curriculum development (Miller & Seller 1985; Richard 2001) and critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 1995) to ideologically contrast teachers and learners’ positions. The textbook analysis is used as basis of how content of curriculum is organized and, later, it reflects how teachers teach in classroom. The interview data are analyzed to gain teachers’ perspective in teaching English in both curricula. The result shows that similarly both curricula purpose to enhance learners with communicative competence although the content is arranged differently. Therefore, principally, teachers’ competence holds significant factors in developing curriculum. In the recommendation section, it is noted that government and institution need to facilitate teachers in developing their competency in teaching English language and tightly evaluate them in order to reach National education aim as mandated in National Preamble.

2.     Introduction

In the world of ‘no value free’ (Emmitte 2005), every documents of institutions, particularly curriculum, reflect and diverse social value (Lie 2000; Fairclough 1995). The 1994 and 2006 curricula socially emerge in two obviously different situations. The former was the first Indonesian curriculum under circumstance of president Soeharto’s first policy of education – National education Act No. 2, 1989, in the third year of National Development’s euphoria- Repelita III. The latter is the first well- socialized and completed of the 2004- based competence curriculum, as the implication of legalization of National education Act No. 20, 2003 and Local Autonomy Act No. 32, 2004, and of under the  democratic era- after eight years of the retreatment of president Soeharto from his legacy.

This study is to critically compare the 1994 and the 2006 English language teaching curricula in Indonesia, particularly based on MTs Negeri Ciranjang’s perspective. It focuses on the comparison of the goals of each curriculum in terms of contents of curriculum/organization of curriculum, teacher’s perceptions and techniques in class, and textbook organization as the major resource in EFL context (Kim & Hall cited in Vellenge 2004).

3.     The Research Problems

Many complaints are directed to government as the changing of curriculum (Retmono at http://www.suaramerdeka.com/harian/0412/30/nas09.htm, December 30, 2004, retrieved at April 8, 2009). In fact Government, as the responsible institution in education (Preamble of National Constitution (UUD) 1945), changes the curriculum based on the development of learner’ needs, situation, national development goal, the development of science, technology and art (Act No. 2, 1989: Chapter IX Article 37), whereas in Act No. 20, 2003 some addition are religious faith, morale, local potential, global trend, national unity and values (Chapter X, Article 36, Verses 3).

On other hand, the development of science and technology in other countries leads them as to be powerful and influencing countries in Education (The Times Higher Education supplement, November 2007 cited in Alwasilah 2008). In addition, although government has changed the curriculum, based on the UNESCO report in 2007, Indonesia’s rank in Education is at 62 from 130 countries where in previous year was at level 58 and Indonesia Education Development Index is 0.935, under Malaysia, 0.945, and Brunei, 0.965 (UNESCO 2007 report as cited by Kartasasmita, 2009). Moreover, National Statistic bureau (BPS) reports that in 2008, 40.1 % of Indonesian citizens are unemployed (The I’tibar 2009). Therefore, investigating the gap by critically comparing the 1994 and the 2006 English language teaching curriculum in Indonesia, particularly their development and implementation in classroom at MTs Negeri Ciranjang is necessary to be conducted.

4.     The Purpose of the Study and Research Question

As mention earlier in section 3 the problems of the changing curriculum and the fact of Indonesia education, this research is intended to investigate critically ‘potential – curriculum document and actual curriculum – implementation of curriculum in class’ (Mulyasa 2008: 3) in order to find out the gap of the governmental policy in changing curriculum to the fact by comparing two curriculums – the 1994 and the 2006 curriculum. Therefore, based on the purpose above, the research question of this study is:

What are the similarities and the differences of the 1994 and 2006 ELT curricula in term of goal of English as foreign language (EFL) taught in school context?

5.     The Significance of the Study

This research focuses on the critical comparison of the ELT curriculum development between the 1994 and 2006, particularly in some aspects adopted from Miller and Seller curriculum development model (Miller & Seller, 1985) supporting by the theories of curriculum development of Richard (2001) and Zais (1976).  Although in some models (Garge, Taba & Robinson in Miller & Wayne 1985; Richard 2001), needs and situation analysis, and evaluation hold crucial factors in development curriculum. In this research needs and situational analysis are as the context of the emergence of both curriculums, and evaluation is as the reflection and implication of how teachers teach not as the main study of this research.

In addition, this research is significant in which it includes four aspects (Marshall& Rossman 2006: 33-38). Firstly, it theoretically endeavors to integrate both potential and actual curriculum analysis that is less conducted integrally (Lie 2000; Yeon, Acedo & Utomo 2002; Pezzoli & Howe2001). Secondly, it attempts to critically analyze policy of government in changing and developing curriculum, as curriculum as the government document (van Dijk at http://www.daneprairie.com ) . Thirdly, the result of this research is valuable information for teachers, particularly how their classroom action significantly impacts to curriculum development (Richard 2001; Harmer 2007) and textbook publisher. Lastly, it attempts to increase awareness that education is not only responsible of government but also teacher, textbook publisher (economic institution) and society in which critically control and manage the planning and process of curriculum development.

6.     Literature Review

6.1       Curriculum Development

6.1.1       Definition of Curriculum and Curriculum Development

The term “curriculum” is derived from the Latin word currere meaning “racecourse”. Further, the term of curriculum defines differently based on the intention of the experts. Taba (1949) simply circumscribes it as “a plan for learning” (in Nasution 1993:10). Alberty and Kerr argues that “the curriculum of the school is all the experiences that pupils have under the guidance of the school” (Nasution 1993; Idi 1999). Similar with Alberty and Kerr, Richard (2001: 39) adds that curriculum includes contents, learning activities, teaching methodology, supporting material, methods of assessment and facilities.

The above definition leads to the needs of development of curriculum predominantly in the context of planning and implementation (Zais, 1976: 471; Idi, 1999: 120; Richard 2001: 41). The concept of curriculum development has been adopted in language teaching from 1980s (Richard 2001: 40) in the movement of ‘meaning and communicative’ (See Levinson 1983; Connole, Smith & Wiseman 1993; Azies & Alwasilah 2000). Curriculum development is characterized as the process of determination of who will be involved, what procedures will be used, how it will be organized (Zais, 1976: 17). Moreover Richard focuses curriculum development processes on “needs analysis, situational analysis, planning learning outcomes, course organization, selecting and preparing material, providing for effective teaching and evaluation” (2001: 41). In addition, Miller and Seller (1985:12-13) suggest teachers to develop curriculum through setting aims and objectives, content, teaching strategies, and organizing the content.

6.1.2       Aspects of Curriculum Development

6.1.2.1       Aims/Goal, Objectives and Competence

In this research, the term of “aim” and “goal” are used interchangeably (Richard 2001; 112; Zais 1976) as the purpose and basic principle of curriculum development. The aim reflects position of curriculum in which underlines particular conception of philosophy, psychology, and society (Miller & Seller 1985: 173; Zais 1976; Richard 2001) of ‘global mega trend’ (Pezzoli & Howe, 2001). Eisner (1992) finds out five curriculum ideologies which influence the aim of ELT curriculum are rationalism, social economic efficiency, learner-centeredness, social reconstruction, and cultural pluralism (Eisner 1992 in Richard 2001: 114-120 with synthesizing).

Objective is more specific level of purposes. It is defined as “the most immediate specific outcomes of classroom interaction” (Zais 1976: 306). The Bloom taxonomy is widely used as hierarchies of educational objectives (Miller & Seller 1985; 179; Zais 1976: 309). Bloom distinguishes objective into three domains; respectively cognitive, affective and psychomotor (http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html).

The cognitive domain involves intellectual tasks such as writing expository compositions. The affective domain deals with feeling, attitude, or value. The psychomotor domain intends to develop manipulative and motor skills (Zais, 1976). However, in the fact, applying four cognitive domains in classroom is rather complex. Particularly, adopting affective domain in learning language is rather hard in EFL context.

Some critiques emerge for the use of objectives in defining learning outcomes (Richard 2001: 127). The competence – based language teaching (CBLT) in 1970s and well-accepted in 1980s focuses on the outcomes or ends of learning programs (Schneck 1978 in Richard 2001: 128). Competence, called as behavioral objectives (Zais 1976; Miller & Seller 1985; Krahnke 1987), defines as what a learner able to do as a result of instruction (Krahnke 1987: 50). In English language competence means learners demonstrate good understanding of other’s talk and in reading text, and demonstrate good English in conversation and in writing discourse (Wachidah, 2004).

6.1.2.2       Content

Content relates to what teacher will teach. Miller & Seller (1985: 185) are used “content” interchangeably with subject matter, knowledge, concepts and Idea. In language teaching context, content relates to subject matter and linguistics matter (Krahnke 1987: 3). In addition Dubin & Olshtain (1985: 45) argue that content consists of language content (structure/grammatical forms), thematic and situational contents.

The content of ELT curriculum reflects the planner’s assumption about the nature of language, language use and language learning, most essential part of language, and how content organized efficiently (Richard 2001: 148). Therefore, the content and its organization of ELT curriculum are obviously based on the development of theory of language.

6.1.2.3       Teaching Strategies/Learning Experiences

Meaningful learning experiences represent the heart of curriculum (Zais, 1976: 350) as “learning experiences are the means for achieving all objectives beside those of knowledge and understanding” (Taba 1962 in Zais 1976: 350). Providing good learning experiences is teachers’ jobs since teachers as resource of experiences (Harmer 2007: 110). Teachers’ choice of their strategies in teaching reflects their belief of learning (Nunan, 2003) in which temporarily enhances learners’ learning experiences (Harmer 2007: 396).

Miller & Seller give some criteria for teacher to select teaching models. Firstly, models should be congruent with aims and objectives. Secondly, models should be congruent with the general environment. Models should be examined to achieve multiple goals. Model should be related to the learners’ framework and level of development (synthesized from Miller & seller 1985: 196). Moreover, Azies & Alwasilah argue that in language class, teacher needs to provide many chances for learners to learn, practice, discuss and other interactive activities (2000:77).

6.1.2.4       Organizing Content

After selecting contents and deciding teaching strategies, teachers need to evaluate and organize them meaningfully. As mention in section 6.1.2.2, the content of ELT curriculum consists of language, thematic and situational contents (Dubin & Olshtain, 1986), therefore their organization is definitely influenced by the development of theories of language and learning (Krahnke 1987: 3) perceived by ELT curriculum maker – as curriculum document, teachers and textbooks publishers – as syllabus (Dubin & Olshtain 1986: 46).

In some circumstances, the term “organization” relates to “design” (Zais 1976; Krahnke 1987; Richard 2001) also used in this research. Curriculum design concerns with the nature arrangement of aims, content, learning experiences and evaluation (Zais, 1976: 393). However, syllabus design relates to decision of what gets taught and in what order (Krahnke 1987: 4). Both contains philosophical assumptions (Zais, 1976; Dubin & Olshtain 1986; Krahnke 1987; Nasution 1993; Idi 1999; Richard 2001) whereas “what knowledge is of most worth?” (Spencer in Idi 1999: 74) is placed as crucial reason.

Curriculum design consists of subject-centered, learner-centered and problem-centered (Zais, 1976: 393; Nasution 1993: 105). Moreover, there are six syllabus designs, respectively; structural, notional, situational, skill/ competence, task, content and integrated based (Krahnke 1987). Furthermore, Dubin & Olshtain add communicative – based as one of syllabus design (See Dubin & Olshtain 1986; Huda 1999; Azies & Alwasilah 2000). The names of those designs reflect intention and belief of designers. Therefore, developers need to be aware the organizational principles in developing curriculum (Nasution 1993; Idi 1999).

6.2       The 1994 ELT Curriculum

The 1994 ELT curriculum emerges as the approval of National Education Act No. 2, 1989. The goal of national education is to enhance intellectual life of the whole nation by mastering science and skills, health, good personality, independent and responsible (Chapter II, Article 4). In every school level, its development is based the development of learner’ needs, situation, national development, the development of science, technology and art (Chapter IX, Article 37). Therefore for the need of globalization and 21st century, the goal of ELT, as stated in Ministerial Decree No. 060/U/1993, February 25th 1993, addresses to acquire reading, listening, speaking and writing skills through themes selected by the level of learners’ interest, mastering vocabularies (1,000 words for Lower secondary level and 2,500 words for higher secondary level), and structure (Appendix II of Ministerial Decree No. 060/U/1993, February 25th 1993).

The approach of teaching is communicative approach (Kasihani cited by Emilia 2005) or meaningful approach (Ministerial Decree No. 060/U/1993, February 25th 1993). Reading, as mention earlier in the goal, and mastering vocabulary as well as structure still hold important skill to communicate (Huda’s survey at 1990). Reading is represented in some themes. Theme is the context of communication (Suplemen 1994, 2000) not as material which is learned by students. Grammatical rule is used and presented to express functional skills (Suplemen 1994, 2000) – integrated language skills. Learning process is focused on learner-centered orientation (Ernawan & Hardjomarso, 1996).

6.3       The 2006 ELT Curriculum

The spirit of decentralization, as showed by Act of local Autonomy No. 22, 1999 revised by Act of Local Autonomy No. 32, 2004 and hand in hand with Act No. 20, 2003, is seen in the 2006 curriculum. In this regard, education is not merely central government’s responsibility; local government also has responsibility in managing and funding education.  Therefore, Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) is developed from Standard of content by schools based on their context and potential.

Although KTSP varies between one and other schools, Government gives some regulations stated in Governmental Regulation (PP) No. 19, 2005 concerning National Standard of Education (SNP) at May 16, 2005. It consists of:  standard of content, standard competence of graduate, standard of process, standard of educator and administrator, standard of medium and infrastructure, standard of funding, and standard of assessment. Furthermore, all standards are ruled by PERMENDIKNAS.

English, as stated in standard of content (PERMENDIKNAS No. 22, 2006), is learned at elementary two hours in a week (as Mulok for class IV, V and VI), at junior and senior high school four hours in a week except for language program in SMU – five hours in a week. Moreover, the standard competence of graduate of English (PERMENDIKNAS No. 23, 2006) for each level is communicative competence in the form of spoken of language accompanying action for elementary school, in the form of spoken and written for achieving functional literacy level for junior high school and in the form of spoken and written for achieving informational literacy level for senior high school.

The syllabus, in this curriculum, perceived as the plan of learning process with lesson plan- RPP (PP No. 19, 2005, chapter IV, article 20; PERMEN No. 41, 2007) which consists of standard of competence, basic standard, material, learning activities, learning indicators, assessment, time allocation and resources (PP No. 19, 2005, Chapter IV, article 20; Depdiknas, 2006; PERMEN No. 41, 2007). The syllabus is developed by a teacher or group teacher supervised by department of education based on standard of content, standard competence of graduate and guiding of arrangement of school-based curriculum (Appendix of PERMEN No. 41, 2007).

7.     Research Methodology

7.1       Research Design

This research uses a critical discourse analysis. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is used as the analytical framework of studying connections between language, power and ideology (Fairclough 1995: 23). This methodology arises in post-structural era. CDA tries to reveals all ideology behind discourse regarded as ‘social practices’ (Fairchlough 1989) and free human from domination of superpower (Eriyanto, 2001).

However, this research also has a similar characteristic to case study. First, it focuses on one case in ‘microscopic’ setting which is identical with natural setting (Travers 2001; Connole, Smith &Wiseman, 1993; Wallace, 1998: Hakim 1987; Silverman 2005). Second, it employs multi sources of evidence to allow for in depth- study (Wiseman 1993, Marshlall & Rosman 2006; Silverman 2005; Denzin & Lincoln 2003).

7.2       Participant

This research involves two kind participants. First are English teachers. There are two English teachers in the research site, both are involved in this research and interviewed to gain information of teaching strategies they used in two different curriculum. Second are documents. There are four documents. First is the 1994 ELT curriculum as stated in appendix of Keputusan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan No. 060/U/1993 tanggal 25 Februari 1993. Second is standard of ELT as states in PERMENDIKNAS No. 22, 2006. Third and fourth are textbooks used in the class, respectively English for SLTP Class 3: An integrated Course of English based on 1994 Curriculum and English on Sky for Junior High school student year IX.

7.3       Setting

This research is conducted in MTs Negeri Ciranjang . This research site is chosen for some reasons. First reason is feasibility. The researcher has been an English teacher for five years in this school. The familiarity with situation helps to create natural setting of the research. Second reason is concerned with the availability of the curricula and their supported resources.

7.4       Data Collection

The data are collected as supporting of ‘triangulation’ concept of qualitative research (Wiseman 1993, Marshlall & Rosman 2006; Silverman 2005; Denzin & Lincoln 2003) namely critical analysis of goal of curricula, interview of teachers’ perspective and textbooks analysis. These data collection procedure will be explained as follow:

7.4.1       Critical Analysis of ELT Goals

As mention earlier in section 2, institutional documents, curriculum, are no value frees (Emmitte 2005). Documents are usually written in particular text. Text is regarded as social practices (Fairchlough 1995; van Dijk 1995). Text varieties depend upon their social condition which are ideologically bounded (Foucault 1979; Fairchlough 1995; vin Dijk 1995).

To uncover the ideology of the curriculum is obviously important, particularly to criticize, understand government intention, and find out the place of reader, in curriculum term, teacher and learner as the user of the curriculum. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) intends to answer such phenomena by analyzing how text works in particular social practices especially in textual form, structure and organization (Fairchlough 1995). Moreover, CDA tries to “elucidate naturalization, make clear social determination and effects of discourse” (Fairchlough 1995: 28). Hence, in this research by using CDA, the researcher analyzes government intention and belief concerning theory of English language learning, and find out the position of teacher and learner in curriculum development.

7.4.2       Interview

In this research, collecting data from teachers’ perspective with interview is placed as supporting sources of document analysis. Interview is regarded as the most appropriate method in qualitative inquiry. It is based on assumption that “the participant’s perspective on the phenomena of interest should unfold as the participant views it (emic perspective), not as the researcher views it (etic perspective)” (Marshall and Rossman 2006).

The form of interview, in this research, is individual with semi-structured questions. It is used to enable the researcher to get all information required without forgetting questions. There are three questions. Each is to do with teacher s’ knowledge about curricula, the difference and similarities of their content, and teaching strategies they conducted in both curricula. In addition, before the interview, the researcher informs the interviewees about the goal of this research, the release of pseudonyms in the research report, the fact that this interview is tape-recorded to avoid loss of data, and the feel secure to talk freely using English, Indonesian or Sundanese.

7.4.3       Textbook analysis

In EFL context, text book is the major resource in learning English (Kim & Hall cited in Vellenge 2004).  The organization of text indeed influences how teacher teaches in classroom (Lie, 2000). As mention earlier in section 7.2, two textbooks are chosen and analyzed. The selection is based on the frequently of using those books in class by interviewees. The analysis of textbooks is conducted to find out how content of curriculum organized and arranged in text book, further, the organization reflects what teachers do in classroom. In this research, Krahnke (1987) and Richard (2001)’s theory of curriculum design and Skierso’ guideline of text book analysis are used. Skierso (1991) argues that textbook analysis consists of analyzing bibliographical data, aims and goals, subject matter, vocabulary and grammar, lay out and physical makeup, supplementary exercises for each language skill, methodological and pedagogical guide and linguistics background information. However, for the needs of this research, the indicators are limited into subject matter and supplementary exercise for each language skills.

7.5       Data Analysis

Data of this research are analyzed as follow. Firstly, the goal of both curricula is analyzed with critical discourse analysis to find out hidden ideology and position of teachers and learner in curriculum development. Secondly, the content of curricula represented by textbooks used by teachers will be analyzed based on kind of syllabus, their relation to goal curricula (Krahnke 1987) with analyzing indicators mention above. Thirdly, data interview are transcribed, analyzed and categorized to distinguish teaching methodologies used in both curricula.

Later, these triangulation sources of data are used to contrast, compare, ‘corroborate’ (Silverman, 2005) each other. In interpreting the data, researcher elaborate data to “bring meaning and coherence to the themes, patterns, categories, develop linkages” (Marshall & Rossaman, 2006: 161) of similarities and the differences of both curricula in the goal, content and its organization, and teaching strategies.

8.     Discussion

After analyzing the goals, both curricula purpose to enhance learners with communicative competence. However, there are some differences in viewing communicative competence in both curricula. Further discussion will be explained as follow:

8.1       Analyzing the Goal and Content of both Curricula

As mention in literature review, the goal represents principle of philosophy, psychology, and society (Miller & Seller 1985: 173; Zais 1976; Richard 2001) perceived by government. It is reflected in the arrangement of curriculum component. The analysis of both curriculum goals as follow: The goal of ELT In 1994 is

pada akhir sekolah lanjutan tingkat pertama siswa memiliki keterampilan membaca , menyimak, berbicara, dan menulis dalam Bahasa Inggris melalui tema yang dipilih berdasarkan tingkat perkembangan dan minat mereka, tingkat penguasaan kosa kata (lebih kurang 1,000 kata), dan tata bahasa yang sesuai.

The goal explicitly does not mention the purposes of learning English as means of communication, although in the explanation (Keputusan Mentri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan No. 060/U/1993, 25/02/1993) communicative competence is highlighted.

Reading, theme and mastering 1,000 of vocabularies with adequate structure are the keywords. Fairclough (1989; 1995; 2003) said the place of particular component holds the main focus of the document. Therefore, the goal insists to perceive communicative competence through reading comprehension and mastering sum of words. It is absolutely contrast with the principle of communicative competence, in which it enhance learner  to communicate in target language through semantic notion, social function, not just linguistics structure (Celce-Murcia M. , 1991).

However, by mastering particular sum of words, the police maker perceived teachers and learners requiring control individuals, therefore learning was conceived as mechanistic process (Zais 1976: 397). It is obviously contradiction with the principle of communicative approach which places learners as the centre of learning activities (Celci Murcia 1991; Harmer 2007, Brown 1994).

In addition, in 1994 curriculum, the arrangement of skills are, respectively, reading, listening, speaking and writing.  Reading, as mentioned earlier and supported with themes and sum of words, indicates the important of reading above other language skills. In addition, other skills, respectively listening, speaking and writing, are perceived as next level of skills. In other words, after mastering reading, listening, speaking and writing are as indicators of the advance level of ability. Moreover, in some circumstances and some context these three skills are rare to be learnt by children. Therefore, reading and all aspects of text, particularly vocabularies and structure, are regarded as the most important aspect in learning English language.

In contrast, the 2006 curriculum perceive communicative competence as follow:

Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris di SMP/MTs bertujuan agar peserta didik memiliki kemampuan sebagai berikut: (1) Mengembangkan kompetensi berkomunikasi dalam bentuk lisan dan tulis untuk mencapai tingkat literasi functional. (2) Memiliki kesadaran tentang hakikat dan pentingnya bahasa Inggris untuk meningkatkan daya saing bangsa dalam masyarakat global. (3) Mengembangkan pemahaman peserta didik tentang keterkaitan antara bahasa dengan budaya (PERMENDIKNAS No. 22, 2006).

The goal shows that communicative competence in functional literacy level is the concern. The word ‘peserta didik – learner’ as the subject in active sentence represents that learner is the center (see (Eriyanto 2001; Fairchlough 1995). In order to achieve functional level of literacy, learners’ discourse competence is developed (Wells 1987: Celce-Murcia, Dorney & Thurrell 1995). It is derived from assumption that discourse is perceived as form of social event (Fairchlough 1995; van Dijk 1995) in euphoria of post-structuralism, post- feminism and post- modernism movement of philosophy. However, although the 2006 goal seems unproblematic in goal arrangement, the fact, this post- philosophical movement is hard to employ in urban area.

In 2006, the arrangement of skills is respectively, listening, speaking, reading and writing. Listening as places earlier is regarded as the bottom up skills in learning language (see Nunan, 2003). All skills focus on genre (PERMENDIKNAS No. 22, 2206). Genre perceives as general model of utterance (http://www.WebWritingThatWorks.com). Therefore, being able to listen, read and produce particular genre enhance learners and facilitate them in communication with others. However, in fact it is very difficult to practice all kind of assumptions above in classroom, particularly with teachers who lack knowledge of it. Genre is regarded as text, as well as, theme in 1994.

8.2        Teaching Strategies

After transcribing interview, the data shows as follow: when the researcher asked their knowledge concerning both curricula that both interviewees know about the 1994 and 2006. First interviewee – Mr. X answered ‘yes’, doubtfully, in contrast, second interviewee – Mrs. Y, clearly said yes. However, when the second question concerning their similarities as well as the differences is addressed to them, Mr. X said that the differences is only in new terms, for instance terms of “competence” and “discourse” however, he principally clarifies both are same. In line with Mr. X, Mrs. Y said that basically both are same, although listening and discourse are the major concerned, reading and structure are crucial factors. The last question, when the researcher asked how they teach in classroom, both agreed that the way they teach in both curricula are similar, although in 2006 generic structure of particular genre is explicitly taught to learners.

From data above, the interpretations are teachers perceived that there are no differences between both curricula. The new term they know only discourse and competence in which they are regarded as same as text in particular theme and goals. In addition, they explain the teaching strategies they conduct in class are similar in both curricula. Furthermore, they said that explaining grammar is important in order to be able to write in particular genre type. Therefore, grammar still holds crucial part in teaching and learning process and the changes of curriculum does not change their perception about ELT and the learning strategies they conducted in classroom. Hence, this situation is contradicted with Undang-Undang No. 20, 2003, Peraturan Pemerintah No. 19, 2005, and PERMENDIKNAS No. 41, 2007. However, this finding is in line with Huda (1999).

8.3        Textbook Analysis

As mention earlier in section, the organization of curriculum content can be seen from the syllabus design and table of content of textbooks (Krahnke 1987; Richards 2001). In 1994 textbooks, the content is theme-based.  Krahnke(1987) and Richard (2001) called thematic syllabus as topical/content and competence based- syllabus  which emphasizing the essential skills, knowledge, and attitudes (See Krahne 1987:66, Richard 2001; 157).

Unit Theme Sub-theme Skill- developed Language focus
1 Technology (1) Electronic Media
  1. Reading
    1. Reading for gist
    2. Understanding explicitly stated information
    3. Reading for specific information
    4. Deducing meaning from context
  2. Speaking
    1. Interviewing  friends about extra curriculum activities
    2. Spotting differences
  3. Writing
    1. Arranging jumbled sentences
    2. Expressing certainty and uncertainty
    3. Comparing two or more objects

Adopted from table of content of English for SLTP Class 3: An integrated Course of English based on 1994 Curriculum, page: vii).

However, in this book, text, language focus, reading and grammar exercise almost bear out in each unit. It is seldom found some exercises that relate to listening, speaking and writing. Moreover, in the end of unit evaluation, the test is in the form of multiple choices not in the form of producing and writing particular text.

In 2006, as same as the 1994, the textbook is theme-based as well as the title of the themes.

  1. Earth: Our mother nature
  2. And, here is the news
  3. Advance technology
  4. Art is art
  5. The sports that people do
  6. Places where we go


Adopted from table of content of English on Sky for Junior High school student year IX.

In contrast with the 1994, language focus is not stressed. Theme is regarded as context of language. Furthermore listening holds crucial skill. Mostly there are seven tasks for listening section compared with twelve tasks provided in each unit. Other skill exercises are provided sufficiently. However, this book does not provide some cassettes for teachers to conduct listening section as mention in the task. So, this important skill is abandon in classroom.

9.     Conclusion and Recommendation

The major conclusion of this research is that principally both have same philosophical perspective in which learning English language is perceived to enhance learners to have communicative competence. However, different curriculum content arrangement, in which principally may lead to different learning strategies, in fact, does not change the way teachers teach in classroom. Moreover, although two textbooks used by teachers as the one and only major source of English language environment for learners in both curricula are organized differently, it does not change teachers’ paradigms concerning teaching English. Weaken environment, the lack of teaching competence and punishment and reward system of institution influence teachers’ creativity in classroom. So, the teachers’ competences in teaching are very important in curriculum development.

In addition, based on the findings, which may not be generalized in other setting, it is recommended that (1) teachers’ competencies as mentioned in Act No. 20, 2006 need to be increased and developed through MGMP, seminar, training and other professional discussion (Richard 2001; Harmer 2007). (2) Institution needs to facilitate and give good situation for teachers to apply their competency in classroom (House 1974; Richard 2001). (3) The book publishers need to have same educational responsibility in writing textbooks beside profit orientation (Huda 1999). Finally tightly governmental evaluation concerning teachers’ competency needs to be conducted fairly and regularly in order to increase quality of education.

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Membumikan Komunikasi Surgawi di ruang kelas

Membumikan Komunikasi Surgawi di Ruang Kelas

Oleh: Eneng Elis Aisah

Dalam hidup keseharian sebagai mahluk sosial, manusia tidak pernah luput dari proses komunikasi. Konsep komunikasi berdasarkan akar kata to communicate pada dasarnya mengandung makna memberikan atau bertukar informasi, menyatakan pendapat atau perasaan dan berusaha memahami baik itu pendapat, pikiran, perasaan, bahkan pengetahuan antara satu dengan yang lainya. Dari pengertian tadi dapat digarisbawahii bahwa hakikat utama komunikasi adalah aktivitas lisan antara individu untuk saling berbagi kebaikan yang berdasarkan pada pikiran dan perasaan. Hal ini sesuai dengan firman Allah dalam surat fushilat ayat 3:

ومن احسن قولا ممن دعا الي الله وعمل صالحا وقال انني من المسلمين

Yang artinya: Siapakah yang lebih baik perkataannya daripada orang yang menyeru kepada Allah, mengerjakan amal yang shaleh dan berkata: “Sesungguhnya aku termasuk orang-orang yang berserah diri?”

Dalam ayat tadi, secara implicit menegaskan bahwa komunikasi seseorang menentukan “harga” dari orang tersebut: apakah menjadi orang yang baik atau orang yang tidak baik. Jelaslah bahwa dalam berkomunikasi harga diri atau wajah (face) sangat dipertaruhkan. Wajah dalam proses interaksi, menjadi identitas yang sangat penting bagi pemiliknya. Ungkapan kehilang wajah menjadi hal yang sangat menakutkan menimpa kita manakala kita terlibat dalam interaski yang melibatkan terancamnya wajah (face threatening act). Saking takutnya kehilangan wajah, maka kita dengan sengaja selalu berusaha untuk menghindari aktifitas yang mengandung keterancamanya wajah kita seperti dikritik dan mengkritik, evaluasi, monitoring bahkan seperti mengungkapkan gagasan dan perasaan bahkan dalam interaski diruang kelas, kita selalu menghidnari berkata tidak tahu manakala siswa kita bertanya sesuatu yang benar-benar kita tidak tahu.

Konsep wajah pertama kali diteumakan dalam literature china pada abad 4 yang selanjutnya menjadi bagian dari ajaran kung fu che dan pada akhirnya menjadi konsep dasar aturan komunikasi yang dikembangkan oleh Goffman pada tahun 1970-an. Dalam konsep ini, wajah adalah entity sosial yang dipinjamkan masyarakat kepada yang punya wajah. Dengan kata lain, wajah adalah pinjaman yang diberikan oleh masyarakat yang suatu saat dapat diabil kembali manakala yang memakai wajah itu tidak mengikuti aturan masyarakat yang meminjamkan wajah tersebut. Namun, konsep wajah dari timur ini pada akhir tahun 1980 an mendapat kritik yang sangat hebat dari barat khusunya oleh Brown dan Levinson. Menurut mereka wajah adalah enitas pribadi yang dimiliki dan diciptakan oleh yang punya wajah. Dalam pengertian ini wajah menjadi sangat pribadi dan personal. Dengan kata lain, keselamatan wajah kita tergantung dari apa yang kita lakukan dan usahakan sendiri tanpa ada unsur keterlibatan orang lain dalam menjaga wajah. Hal ini pada akhirnya dapat mengakibatkan individualism dan keangkuhan diri yang padakhirnya membuka celah untuk menghalalkan apapun yang penting wajah sendiri terselamatkan bahkan sampai menghalalkan perusakan wajah orang lain.

Oleh karena itu, dalam prinsip komunikasi Leech menyarankan beberapa maksim kesantunan berkomunikasi yang terdiri dari prinsip kebijaksanaan, prinsip kedermawanan, prinsip penerimaan, prinsip kesepahaman, dan prinsip sympati. Kesemua prinsip temuan Leech tersebut berjalan dengan hukum tauntologi yang mengandung prinsip mamaksimalkan kepada lawan tutur dan meminimalkan kepada penutur. Dengan kata lain prinsip Leech ini menapikan keuntungan komunikasi bagi penutur dan memberikan keuntungan sebanyak-banyaknya bagi mitra tutur. Prinsip ini tentunya akan merugikan mitra tutur dan pada akhirnya menciptakan komunikasi satu arah. Maka pada tahun 2005, aziz seorang professor linguitik Indonesia menyarankan prinsip saling tenggang rasa (mutual consideration) yang berdasarkan pada rumusan:

“terhadap mitra tutur anda, gunakan tuturan yang anda sendiri pasti akan senang mendengarnya apabila tuturan tersebut diguanakan orang lain kepada anda” mafhum mukholapah dari pernyataan tadi adalah “Terhadap mitra tutur anda, jangan gunakan tuturan yang anda sendiri pasti tidak akan menyukainya apabila tuturan tersebut digunakan orang lain terhadap anda” dengan kata lain bahwa ketika kita melakukan komunikasi maka kita harus memiliki kesadaran bahwa mitra tutur kita pasti memiliki perasaan yang sama dengan yang kita rasakan. Lebih lanjut dari rumusan tersebut, Aziz memberikan empat prinsip dasar dalam berkomunikasi:

  • Prinsip daya sanjung dan daya duka (harm and favor potential)

Prinsip pertama ini menujukan dasar atau niat dari sebuah tuturan. Nilai dasar mengandung makna bahwa tuturan memiliki potensi untuk menyakiti atau menyanjung lawan tutur tergantung dari niat yang kita tanamkan dalam hati. Tentunya, hal ini sejalan dengan hadits nabi “Innamal a’malu binnitt wainama likullimriin ma nawat”.

  • Prinsip berbagi rasa (shared feeling principle)

Prinsip ini menegaskan bahwa sebuah tuturan yang diucapkan penutur harus senantiasa mampu menjaga perasaan mitra tutur. Sebagaimana hal nya ketika dia memperhatikan dirinya sendiri ketika bertutur. Dan hal ini tentunya sejalan dengan ajaran Islam yang menyatakan bahwa “ cintailah saudaramu sepertihalnya kau mencitai dirimu sendiri”

  • Prinsip kesan pertama (prima facie principles)

Komunikasi yang kita lakukan akan memberikan kesan terhadap mitra tutur dan pada akhirnya menentuka keberhasilan komunikasi pada tahap selanjutnya. Apabila mitra tutur mendapatkan kesan kurang baik terhadap penutur pada interaksi pertama kita, maka sangat mungkin terjadinya keengganan untuk melanjutkan komunikasi. Dan hal ini telah dicontokan oleh baginda kita selama beliau menyiarkan agama islam. Allah menggambarkan”

فبما رحمة من الله لنت لهم ولو كنت فظا غليظ القلب لانفضوا من حولك فاعف عنهم واستغفرلهم وشاورهم في الامر فاذا عزمت فتوكل علي الله ان الله يحب المتوكلين

Artinya: Maka disebabkan rahmat dari Allah-lah kamu berlaku lemah-lembut terhadap mereka. Sekiranya kamu bersikap keras lagi berhati kasar, tentulah mereka menjauhkan diri dari sekelilingmu. Karena itu maafkanlah mereka, mohonkanlah ampun bagi mereka, dan bermusyawarahlah dengan mereka dalam urusan itu. Kemudian apabila kamu telah membulatkan tekad, maka bertawakallah kepada Allah. Sesungguhnya Allah menyukai orang-orang yang bertawakal kepada-Nya.

  • Prinsip keberlangsungan (continuity principle).

Prinsip yang terakhir ini sangat berkaitan erat dengan prinsip-prinsip sebelumnya. Ketika penutur memberikan kesan baik kepada mitra tutur, maka proses komunikasi akan berlangsung terus menerus. Bahkan prinsip continuity ini juga memiliki range masa depan yang lebih dari sekedar kehidupan didunia tapi prinsip keberlanjutan ini sampai keakhirat kelak. Dengan kata lain bahwa komunikasi kita akan memberikan nilai dan pada akhirnya membentuk kepribadiaan, watak, pengetahuan dan pengaruh lain kepada mitra tutur. Karena pada prinsipnya tujuan komunikasi sama halnya dengan tujuan kehidupan. Allah berfirman:

وما الحيواة الدنيا الا لعب ولهو وللدار الاخرة خير للذين يتقون افلا تعقلون

ِِArtinya: Dan tiadalah kehidupan dunia ini, selain dari main-main dan senda gurau belaka. Dan sungguh kampung akhirat itu lebih baik bagi orang-orang yang bertakwa. Maka tidakkah kamu memahaminya? (Al-An’am 32)

Implikasi padagogis dari prinsip komunikasi ini bahwa, komunikasi kita dikelas dengan anak memberikan efek yang sangat dalam bagi keberlangusngan hidup anak. Apakah anak akan menjadi pribadi yang baik, bersemngat hormat, rajin belajar dan memiliki daya kritis tergantung dari pola komunikasi kita dengan mereka. Bahasa yang digunakan guru dalam proses interkasi sosial-‘belajar’ (Emmitte & Pullock, 1991) sangat penting dalam membantu siswa dalam belajar dan mengembangkan kemapuan berfikir kritis mereka (Hills, 2006; Brown, 2007; Lampert, 1998; Cobb, McClain & Whitenack, 1997 seperti dalam Brown, 2007). Namun penelitian umumnya menunjukan bahwa pola komunikasi guru di dalam kelas cenderung memandulkan siswa dalam belajar dan berfikir (Bolitho, 2008).Oleh karena itu Guru dalam interaksi mereka dengan murid hendaknya memperhatikan bahasa yang mereka gunakan dikarenakan bahasa adalah sumber proses pembelajaran (Emmitte & Pullock, 1991).

Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Cazden tahun 1982 mengindikasikan bahwa 70 % guru mendominasi pembicaraan dikelas. Beberapa penelitian lain mengungkapkan hal yang sama. Diantaranya Brown & Hirst (2007), Myhill (2006), Crosson & Resnick (2005), Ryder & Leach (2008) Hansen (2004), Walsh (2002) melaporkan bahwa bahasa yang dipergunakan guru sangat penting dalam memberikan rasa aman dan nyaman kepada siswa untuk berpartisipasi dalam proses belajar.

Dengan kata lain seandainya bahasa yang kita pakai dalam interasi tidak memiliki prinsip saling tenggang rasa, lebih mengandung banyak daya duka diakibatkan dari nafinya niat yang kuat dan ketidakmampuan kita memberikan kesan yang baik, maka keberlangsungan pribadi anak yang diakibatkan pola komunikasi kita akan membentuk pribadi-pribadi yang “membenci” surga dan lebih “mencintai” kehidupan. Sehingga pada akhirnya nilai-nilai ajaran Islam yang telah dikomunikasikan Allah melalui al-qur’an semata hanyalah dogmatis keakhiratan yang menafikan kehidupan kekinian.

Oleh karena itu, adalah tugas kita sebagai guru yang berada dilingkungan kekinian dan keakhiratan (Madrasah) untuk membumikan nilai-nilai ilahiah, yang telah Allah turunkan dalam bingkan pengetahuan modern sepertihalnya yang dilakukan professor Aziz. Dan adalah tugas kita sebagai umat islam untuk berkomunikasi layaknya komunikasi yang disaratkan Allah dalam Al-Qur’an kepada mitra tutur kita dan terutama kepada murid kita. Karena ditanganyalah kelak harga diri dan kejayaan Islam.

(Artikel ini ditulis setelah kuliah Pragmatik Prof. E. Aminudin Aziz, Guru Besar Linguistik UPI Bandung. Tulisan ini adalah sebagai ucapan terima kasih atas ilmu yang beliau berikan. Alhamduliah artikel ini juga dimuat di Media Pembinaan Kanwil Depag Jabar Edisi Januari 2010, No. 10/XXXVI)

Reading An Ex-mas Feast: to blaze, provoke and render the world

Reading An Ex-mas Feast: to blaze, provoke and render the world

By.

Eneng Elis Aisah

“Literature adds to reality, it does not simply describe it. It enriches the necessary competencies that daily life requires and provides; and in this respect, it irrigates the deserts that our lives have already become.”

(C.S. Lewis: British Scholar and Novelist. 18981963)

Introduction

If there is an effective media to educate human of how to live, then literature is most likely one of alternatives to be appraised. Most people boldly cry when the character of the stories they read, watch or listen died sadness or unspoken love between the characters occurred. Patriotism of Indonesian young man was burned when Rendra read Sajak Sebatang Lisong in 1977 which leaded to Maladi event. The story of the first Korean Queen Soen Deok ruled 632-647 in Peninsula Kingdom which gives the unforgettable experiences of maintaining her identity as a queen and as a woman in patriarchy culture got 42 % of Korean viewers in its fourth day broadcasting in television.

Both poem and stories create and gives powerful influence to the culture and nation. They are not only as the identity of national culture but also as the indicator of the decline or the incline of a nation (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 17491832). As both explore the value and meaning of human experiences by imaginative recreation in language (Hills, 2006) and the people which ceases to produce literature ceases to move in thought and sensibility (Elliot, 1986), then introducing, insinuating and teaching them to students are necessary and most likely precious for Indonesian future.

Narrative as one genre taught in our curriculum, is defined the sequence of stories of people /characters in time and places (Knapp & Watkins, 2005). It is central genre in all culture in almost every imaginable situation and life (Christie, 2005; Martin & Rose, 2008; Christie & Derewianka, 2008). It also structures and shapes one’s world, Hardy (1968, cited in Spilka 1977, cited in Hills 2006: 94) had concluded “we dream in narrative, daydream in narrative, remember, anticipate, hope, desire, believe, doubt, plan, revise, critics, construct, gossip, learn, hate, love by narrative” (p.31). Therefore teaching literature to students in EFL classroom is as ingratiating student selves’ life and even other’s. These activities are involved through and with language in the form of text as source of language and in the form discourse in classroom context as medium of literature discussion community.

An Ex-Mas Feast of Uwem Akpan

In September 2009, Oprah Winfrey announced Uwem Akpam ‘short story as her 63rd book club selection. Say You are One of Them is debut collection mark the first time Winfrey has ever chosen. This short story has many achievements. In 2007, it was one of five short stories by African writers chosen as finalists for the Caine Prize for African writing, won the Commonwealth Writer’s Prize for Best Book (African Region) 2009, PEN/beyond Margins Award 2009 and finalist for the Lost Angeles Times Art Seidenbaum Award fort first fiction.

The first title of this short story’s collection is An Ex-mas Feast. It is about how street boy and girls struggling for poverty of their family life in Naerobi. This story narrated clearly how Maisha, the biggest daughter, is being a “Malaya”, a whore for money paid for school fee’s of her only brother. They thoroughly realized that education is the solution for their better future. However, it is absolutely luxurious. It is only aligned with two issues; for man and for rich people. In Ex- mas Feast, hating for being a poor person and a girl, Maisha was decided to leave the family and live with a white man in Honolulu, Hawaii to earn money for Jigana’s school tuition. It was the last and awe Ex-Mas feat they celebrated together although with the most luxurious food they have ever dreamt. Deep sorrow of being leaving with one of their beloved member of family, blaming each other is the only way to express it. Feeling guilty, Jigana decided to abandon everything he had; the family and the only his most wanted dream. And finally became someone that he hated most.

Reasons of choices

Issuing poverty, gender inequality and prostitution, and struggling of young people for getting education are most likely appropriate stories to be responded by and discussed with adolescence by means of some value reasons:

Firstly, it copes with development needs of young adults. In that age, young adults need to be recognized as beings in growth in searching of self and identity. This short story perfectly describes the developmental of being a girl to being a woman. The words representing the beauty, woman and identity mostly appear in each page, for instance high heel, doll of face, funny – funny designer clothes, lingering perfume, etc. Those words characterize the need of a young girl to be existed in the women words as culture accepted it.

Secondly, Ex-Mast Feast provokes the reflective capacity of the reader. Naerobi has quite similar in the economic condition with most of Indonesian suburbs. Being a poor means struggling and suffering although it does not mean to give up to the condition and stop dreaming. Young person is the future of the family and the nation. Reflecting education is necessary condition for better future is valuable values that young adults will get through the story.

Thirdly, as The Entertainment Weekly writes “One of the years’ most exhilarating reads…Awe is the only appropriate response to Uwem Akpan’s stunning debut”, this story subconsciously makes tears falling, rips the hearth and raises empathy. It is hardly to image set in those conditions. As young and pretty girl, Marsiha only has two options to be chosen, being a street girl and raped or becoming a prostitute and meeting with rich man to lean the life. Both are dreadful option and pity life.

Fourthly, although this story discusses the reasons of Masha being a prostitute providing with logical arguments, it is most likely deceitful to conclude that Masha’s decision is right and true. There are many solutions available to be found in the discussion between readers in classroom. Cultural, religious and ethic values of students will determine the evidence of judging the truthiness of the story in their world.

Moreover, comparing with language and culture benefits of teaching literature in classroom as listed by Parkinson and Thomas (2000), An Ex-mast Feat provides cultural enrichment. As culture is the aspect of social concerned with the meanings which come about in and through social relation among people, classes, institution, structures and things like literature (Thwaites, Davis & Mules, 1994), then in reading An Ex-mast Feast, students learn to interpret character action’s and cultural setting of Naerobi within large frameworks of words or activity systems constituted by cultural or ideological forces (Engestrom, 1987 cited in Galda & Beach, 2001). It is easily to find the cultural value of Naerobi in the text. The terms used such as Ex-mas Feast, kabire, baba and mama adds cultural experiences of the reader.

Moreover, the cultural enrichment of this short story provided offers rhetoric. The writer brilliantly changes the use of local English in dialogue to formal English in narrative sequenced. “Me am not going to school” (page 14) is the commonest expression uttered by character. However, the story is vividly narrated the setting of story through vocabularies. Collie and Slater said that reading is substantial and contextualized body of text, reader may gain familiarity with many features of the written language which broaden and enrich their own writing skill (1987 cited in Parkinson and Thomas, 2004; 9). Susan Straight, Washington Post editors comments it “is not merely the subject that makes Akpan’s writing so astonishing, translucent, and horrifying at all at once; it is his talent with metaphor and imaginary, his immersion into character and places”.

The preeminent part of this story is training of the mental of the reader. Mental training is one of the benefits of teaching literature. Leavis (1943) discussed literature trains, in a way not other discipline can, intelligence and sensibility together cultivating sensitiveness and precision of response and a delicate integrity of intelligence (cited in Parkinson and Thomas, 2004: 9). Taking the setting in war-torn countries and the gritty lives of African children, this story blazes humanity, persists horror and relentless without moral queasiness of voyeurism. Chris Abani, author of GraceLand and The Virgin of Flames said “Uwem Akpan write with a political fierceness and humanity so full of compassion it might just change the world”. Of course, this story confidently will revolutionize the paradigm of Indonesian students in viewing their and other world.

Provoking affective, interpretive and Critical capacity

As means of encouraging students’ response with affective, interpretive and critical capacity, the way of assessing literature engages crucial factors in teaching literature. Parkinson and Thomas (2004) listed some potentially assessable outcomes of teaching literature:

Affective outcome

Affective relates to emotional expression associated with ideas, thing or action. It most likely deals with feeling, attitude, or value. In teaching literature, affective outcome may go beyond to an education of the sensibilities, an enhanced awareness and understanding of characters and their own emotional life (Parkinson and Thomas, 2004). It is most likely important than facilitating students with cognitive outcomes. The affective may focus on the arising of students’ self confidence and self-image within and through the characters of the story. Broadly, it may precede to a desire for further success and to positive attitudes to school and society in general (Thomas and Perkinson, 2004:143).

In developing affective sense of students in reading An Ex-mas Feast, the questions of the assessment may appear in the form of open-ended questions as follow:

  • After reading the text, observe the attitudes of each character!
  • In first paragraph, the writer narrated that Maisha had been behaving like a cat that was going feral (line 3). Determine the reason of using cat as metaphor of Maisha’s behavior at home!
  • To raise the family, Mama often asked their children to be a beggar in the street, what do you think it is supposed to be? Is Baba working? Give your response!
  • Certainly within the text, you will find many cultural values in which different from your own culture. Crystallize their cultural values differs with yours!
  • Albeit many diverse values, you may find some universal values which appear in the text. Do you think what the universal values of the text insisted by the writer? Elaborate!

Learning how to learn

There is an interesting proverb from Confucian to bear in mind “If you give a man a fish, you feed him for a day; if you teach a man to fish you feed him for a lifetime”. Giving a man fish is not helping him to face a complicated life. Instead it is teaching him how to be a beggar for the rest of his life. In the learning context, just transferring knowledge to students in the class is like giving a fish for them. They need to know how to learn by their selves for their life.

Learning to learn is from the assumption that education is what remains when one has forgotten all one ever learned (Parkinson and Thomas, 2004). Students will capture knowledge that they need and fit with their social context. According to Fink (2003) learning to learn involves aspects of both the cognitive and affective domains. Significant learning to learn is characterized by “some kind of lasting change that is important in terms of the learner’s life” (Fink 2003).

Relating to An Ex-mas Feast, the questions may appear to assess this outcomes are:

  • Based on your intention, how does the family value education! And how about yours, How you value education? What will you do to cope with your dream?
  • Learn how Jigana finally decide not to continue his study!
  • Supposed you are in the same boat with Misha, What will you do to help your brother to educate him self! Relate your opinion with your believe and cultural values!

Literature-related knowledge and skills

As mention above, literature gives not only moral values but also good model of language, and language it self. In describing this outcome, Parkinson and Thomas (2004) underline three subheadings:

  1. a. Factual Knowledge

It includes knowledge and understanding of basic facts, ideas, and perspectives. It also includes understanding the conceptual structure of a subject:

The questions to develop this knowledge are:

  • What is Ex-mas Feast?
  • What is Kabire?
  • How many characters are in the story?
  • What is the profession of Jigana’s father?
  1. b. Delicate Sensibility

As discussed above, mental training is one of the benefits of teaching literature. Leavis (1943) discussed literature trains, in a way not other discipline can, intelligence and sensibility together cultivating sensitiveness and precision of response and a delicate integrity of intelligence (cited in Parkinson and Thomas, 2004: 9).

Therefore to cope with this outcome, the assessments are as follow:

  • Can you feel and describe Jigana’s feeling in the story?
  • Do you think Mama and Baba love Misha? Elaborate!
  1. c. Skills of Literary Criticism

Critical literacy is the concept that the social, political, cultural, and linguistic background of both the author and the reader must be considered and acknowledged (Comber & Simpson, 2001; Cope & Kalantzis, 1999 cited in Hertzbeg at www.readingonline.com ). This concept has influenced pedagogical approaches taken in reading education in recent years. Developing students’ critical thinking is central to helping them achieve critical literacy.

To provide literary criticism, leading questions or format of Socratic questions can be used by teachers to encourage learners in criticizing the story:

  • Why did Misha go to Honolulu?
  • Why did that ex-mas become the worst time for Machokos family?
  • Do you think what the strengths and the weakness of the story?
  • What is the writer’s intention of telling this story?
  1. d. Language competencies

As authentic resources of English language, this story provides rich language competences. In this story, writer provides rich contextual vocabularies, coherence and cohesion structure.

a)      General and miscellaneous

To assess this outcome, the questions are:

  • Pay attention to the dialogue, List some formal and informal English in the dialogue!
  • This is narrated vividly with using of many adverbial; write some adverbs that describe the awe situation!

b)      Skills of reading

  • What is the main idea of 4th paragraph?
  • What does the underline word refer to?

A clap of thunder woke Mama. She got up sluggishly, pulling her hands away from Maisha’s trunk, which she had held on to while she slept. It was navy blue, with brass linings and rollers, and it took up a good part of our living space

c)      Increasing functional range

Read part of the story below. Decide what the functions of underlined expressions are!
I quickly covered the trunk with rags and reached into my pocket,
tightening my grip around the rusty penknife I carried about.
Mama and I stood by the door. Bwana Wako wore his trousers
belted across his forehead; the legs, fl ailing behind him, were tied in
knots and stuffed with ugali fl our, which he must have gotten from
a street party. Cecilia wore only her jacket and her rain boots.
Ah, Mama Jigana-ni Ex- mas!” the husband said. “Forget the
money. Happee Ex- mas!”
“We hear Jigana is going to school,” the wife said.
“Who told you?” Mama said warily. “Me, I don’t like rumors.”
They turned to me. “Happee to resume school, boy?”
“Me am not going to school,” I lied, to spare my tuition money.
“Kai, like mama like son!” the wife said. “You must to know
you are the hope of your family.”
“Mama Jigana, listen,” the man said. “Maisha came to us last
week. Good, responsible gal. She begged us to let bygone be
bygone so Jigana can go to school. We say forget the money — our
Ex- mas gift to your family.”
“You must to go far with education, Jigana,” the wife said,
handing me a new pen and pencil. “Mpaka university!”
Mama laughed, jumping into the flooded alley. She hugged
Rendering the world

Above assessment, generally is intended to render the world increasing sensitivity through and within language. This section discusses the interpretation of the assessment with elaborating the intended skill or value to cope with broader outcomes.

To be able to change the students’ paradigm of looking world phenomenon and having self-reflective through literature, the students, firstly, may have sufficient language competence. The abilities to recognize the formal and informal expression, meaning of words, lexical cohesion and coherence, and the function of the expression in the text are important to gain factual knowledge and able to response literary critically.

Having the ability to respond literary critically facilitates to develop learner to learn how to learn. Learning to learn is able students with self-reflective. Students may familiarize with the way of they learn and other’s. In further, students know their own, cultural, national and world values.

After knowing them selves, students are intended to be sensitive with other. Understanding other country values, knowing the way of other facing their life, solving problems and coping with the dream they have provided in the affective outcome assessment help students to shift paradigm of their selves and finally have the intention to live in a better world. Therefore, Literature is beyond, beyond of language, culture and religion. It is an echo of the life.

Bibliography
(n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2010, from http://www.readingonline.com

(n.d.). Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://www.uwemakpan.com/praise

(2009, September). Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://www.oprah.com/oprahbooksclub/author-Uwem-Akpans-Biografy

Christie, F. (2005). Language Education in the Primary Years. Sydney: UNSW Press Book.

Christie, F., & Derewianka, B. (2008). School Discourse. London: Continum.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power. England: Longman Group UK Limited.

Galda, L., & Beach, R. (2001). Response to Literature as a Cultural activity. Reading Research Quarterly , 64-73.

Halliday, M. (1994). An Introduction to Fuctional Grammar. Edward Arnold: New York.

Hill, S. (2006). Developing Early Literacy. Australia: Eleanor Curtain Publishing.

Knapp, P., & Watkins, M. (2009). Genre, Text, Grammar: Technologies for Teaching and Assesing Writing. Sydney: UNSW Press Book.

Martin, J., & Rose, D. (2008). Genre Relation: Mapping Culture. London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.

Parkinson, B., & Thomas, H. (2004). Teaching Literature in a Second Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Prinsip dan Aplikasi Dasar Ideolinguistik

sampul bukuPrinsip dan Aplikasi Dasar Ideolinguistik

Oleh: E. Elis Aisah

Buku ini ditulis sebagai tindak lanjut dari filsafat bahasa Ideolinguistik. Indonesia merupakan surga laboratorium bahasa, namun sejak dulu filsafat bahasa tidak pernah berkembang apalagi lahir di Indonesia. Merupakan suatu pekerjaan berat dan patut diapresiasikan, akhirnya terbit juga filsafat bahasa dari surga laboratorium bahasa ini.

Pendahuluan
Bahasa, begitu juga dengan segala hal lain yang ada di muka bumi ini mengalami perubahan; perubahan itu bisa saja dialami dengan cepat maupun dengan lambat. Perubahan bahasa terjadi seiring dengan perubahan yang terjadi pada pengguna bahasa itu sendiri, dengan segenap faktor-faktor eksternal dan internal para pengguna bahasa itu. Faktor eksternal yang terdiri dari aspek-aspek sosiokultural dan aspek internal seperti perkembangan mental dan ide sangat mempengaruhi eksistensi dan dinamika bahasa. Perubahan bahasa itu juga terjadi dalam beberapa aspek seperti aspek prinsip dan aspek aplikasi. Kadang perubahan itu terjadi karena asimilasi atau bahkan perombakan total; dan ini terjadi guna menyesuaikan pemahaman manusia pada prinsip-prinsip bahasa dan aplikasinya.
Ternyata, perubahan bahasa itu sendiri bisa dalam bentuk kelahiran varian baru dari prinsip dan aplikasi bahasa yang sudah ada. Hal ini sangat tergantung pada sejauh mana prinsip-prinsip yang sudah ada itu menjawab persoalan-persoalan seputar fenomena bahasa itu sendiri. Sebagai contoh, lahirnya Neurolinguistik seagai varian baru yang menganalisa hubungan saraf-saraf manusia dan aktivitas linguistisnya. Dahulunya, Psikolinguistik merupakan ilmu yang menangani persoalan ini, lambat laun manusia, dengan segenap kompleksitas kehidupannya, menemukan wilayah yang tak terkaji oleh Psikolinguistik. Oleh karenanya dibutuhkan varian baru yang diharapkan bisa menangani persoalan yang ada. Sehingga, dinamika perubahan bahasa itu sendiri berada pada titik-titik tertentu saja dengan atau tidak mempengaruhi titik-titik yang lain…. (read more [download fulltext PDF])

Mendidik, Mencintai dengan Berdialog

Picture 003Mendidik, Mencintai dengan Berdialog

Oleh:

Eneng Elis Aisah*

Tidak ada seorang pun di dunia ini yang tidak mengetahui kata cinta. ‘cinta’ adalah kata yang sering kita dengar dan juga ungkapkan.

Kata ini sering menjadi legitimasi atas berbagai alasan yang sering kita lakukan. “bakating ku nyaah” secara sepontan muncul ketika kita memukul anak yang nakal, atau ketika berbeda pendapat atas suatu pandangan.

Anak adalah amanah Allah kepada kita. Sifat kekhalifaahan kita diuji dengan kehadiran mereka. Bukan diakhirat kelak, di dunia pun amanah ini dapat menggiring kita kepada dua pilihan, terpuji atau ternistai.

Anak bukanlah miniatur kita – orang dewasa. Mereka adalah pribadi yang sangat unik. Keunikan itulah yang menyebabkan mereka berbeda dalam intelegensi (Gardner dalam Pinter 2006).

Namun, ‘perbedaan’ mereka tidak mengakibatkan perbedaan dalam kebutuhan. Kebutuhan akan pangan, sandang, perlindungan serta aktualisasi diri mutlak terpenuhi, lazimnya manusia dewasa seperti kita.

Sifat alamiah anak, dimanapun adalah egocentris. Mereka selalu ingin menempatkan dirinya dalam pusat pusaran perhatian kita, tidak ada yang lain (Piaget dalam Mooney).

Mereka tidak ingin diberitahu apa yang harus mereka lakukan. Al-hal (tindak laku) lebih mereka sukai dari pada petuah. Terlebih lagi, ketika mereka dilibatkan dalam kontek sosial yang kita hadirkan (Vygotsky dalam Cammeron)

Mengenal potensi anak kita adalah tugas utama kita sebelum mendidik. Walaupun anak sendiri, tidak mesti mereka mirip seperti kita.

Bahkan tidak mesti memiliki cita-cita dan keinginan seperti kita. Apalagi dengan siswa yang tidak memiliki hubungan biologis. Tentu mengetahui variabel mereka dalam belajar mutlak diperlukan.

Pengalaman dan pengetahuan  kita terhadap anak menggiring kita pada penyadaran bahwa mendidik anak, baik anak sendiri ataupun anak orang lain, haruslah dengan cinta. Namun cinta yang seperti apa yang harus kita berikan.

Apakah cinta yang membuat mereka tergantung pada kita selamanya? Ataukah cinta yang memberi ruang kepada mereka untuk berfikir bagaiman mencinta?

Mencinta berarti menghadirkan dialog yang tak berpretensi. Menghadirkan penggiringan nalar dalam koridor respect.

Menghadirkan jawab yang mengandung tanya, sekaligus jawaban secara bersimultan. Menghadirkan berjuta senyum dalam gelak tawa.  Serta membingkai sendu dalam pusaran ilmu.

Dialog menempatkan anak sebagai entitas yang dihormati. Diakui ke wujudan-nya. Diasah kecemerlangan fikirnya.

Dialog adalah aktivitas yang disukai anak karena anak cenderung untuk bertanya sebagai media memenuhi rasa keingintahuannya (Pinter 2006).

Menghadirkan aktivitas dialog atau suasana yang didasari open ended questions relatif sulit terlebih ketika dulu kita dibesarkan dan dididik dalam suasana yang kurang demokratis.

Pengalaman masa lalu, walaupun berusaha untuk dihindari, selalu menghantui malahan bisa merefleksikan tindakan kita. Karena hanya  lingkungan itu yang kita ketahui dan hanya perlakuan seperti itu yang pernah kita rasakan.

Namun, apakah dialog antara diri, ego dan wawasan tidak menghasilkan penyadaran bahwa semua kekeliruan pengalaman yang telah kita rasakan dulu mesti dirasakan oleh siswa, anak yang kita sayangi?

Seandainya dosa turunan itu ada, maka adalah dosa terbesar kita dengan menurunkan apa yang telah menjadi kesalahan. Tidak etis, kiranya, pengalaman yang kita benci ketika anak-anak diberikan kepada orang yang kita sayangi sekarang.

Mendidik adalah mencintai. Dan mencintai berarti memberikan yang terbaik. Berdialog yang mendidik adalah memberikan waktu, pikiran, perasaan dan perhatian dengan penuh rasa cinta serta memberikan nilai-nilai perjuangan abadi.

Berdialog dengan cinta menghadirkan pendidikan dan pengalaman bagaimana mencinta bagi anak, kelak. Sehingga generasi masa depan kita menjadi generasi yang tidak menyukai kebencian. Karena mereka mempunyai banyak referensi, contoh dan pengalaman terbaik bagaimana mencintai.

* Penulis adalah Guru MTs. Negeri Ciranjang

(NB: Umi…teu aya deui kanyaah anu dipikahareup ti manusia, iwal ti umi)